This Hackett edition, first published in 1981, is an unabridged and unaltered republication of the seventh 1907 edition as published by Macmillan and Company, Limited. From the forward by John Rawls: In the utilitarian tradition Henry Sidgwick 1838-1900 has an important place. His fundamental work, The Methods of Ethics first edition 1874, seventh and last edition 1907, here reprinted, is the clearest and most accessible formulation of what we may call 'the classical utilitarian doctorine.' This classical doctrine holds that the ultimate moral end of social and individual action is the greatest net sum of the happiness of all sentient beings. Happinesss is specified as positive or negative by the net balance of pleasure over pain, or, as Sidgwick preferred to say, as the net balance of agreeable over disagreeable consciousness. . . .