Nottingham has been a city since 1897, after being a borough since about the sixth century. The 19th century brought great changes in population, size and character, as Nottingham grew from a small borough of 29,000. In 1877 the borough extended its boundaries by taking in the surrounding parishes. The oldest citizens in 1897 could remember the many changes that had taken place in their lifetime. These changes were mainly brought about by the building of houses, factories, public buildings and railways. By 1997 the population had increased from 239,000 in the 1901 census to 278,000 in 2005. New buildings included multi-storey houses, commercial buildings, cinemas, libraries, schools and two universities, and there was much change as a result of 20th-century transport.