This book contributes significantly to research in the area of the synthesis, characterisation and uses of xylenes. It provides readers with an overview of not only the synthesis of xylenes, but applications of xylenes and biological treatment of xylene-contaminated media water, air and soils. Greener techniques synthesising xylenes from biomass feedstock are discussed. In addition, some energy-efficient processes, such as the membrane-based process, for the synthesis of xylenes are elucidated. Application of xylenes in the production of nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes, is mentioned and discussed in detail. The book also describes and discusses various techniques for the biodegradation/bioremediation of xylene contaminated media. Various studies documented in this book are thought-provoking and could provide a platform for developing further research efforts towards the development of greener and energy-efficient industrial processes for producing xylenes. This book will be of interest to industrialists in the area of xylene production, as well as graduate students and researchers in industry and academia working in the field of chemical engineering, chemistry, and environmental engineering.