Communication is at the heart of all religions. As an essential aspect of religion, communication occurs between believers, between religious leaders and followers, between proponents of different faiths, and even between practitioners and the deities. The desire to communicate with as well as convert others is also an aspect of some of the world's major religions. The Encyclopedia of Religion, Communication, and Media explores all forms of religious communication worldwide and historically, with a special emphasis on oral and written forms of communication. This A-Z organized reference work analyzes how and why the world's religions have used different means of communications through topics dealing with: theory and concepts in religious communication, including rhetoric, persuasion, performance, brainwashing, and more forms of verbal communication, such as chanting, speaking in tongues, preaching, or praying forms of written communication, such as religious texts, parables, mystical literature, and modern Christian publishing other forms of communication, including art, film, and sculpture religious communication in public life, from news coverage and political messages to media evangelism and the electronic church communication processes and their effects on religious communication, including non-sexist language, communication competence, or interfaith dialogue biographies of major religious communicators, including Muhammad, Jesus, Aristotle, Gandhi, and Martin Luther. From the presence of religion on the internet to the effects of religious beliefs on popular advertising, communication and media are integral to religion and the expression of religious belief. With its international and multicultural coverage, this Encyclopedia is an essential and unique resource for scholars, students, as well as the general reader interested in religion, media, or communications.