Within the space of a few years Southern Europe has moved from being an area of mass emigration to one of substantial immigration. The reasons for this remarkable transformation include ease of entry compared with entering other EU countries; geographical proximity to important source and transit countries; cultural linkages; the rising overall economic prosperity of Southern Europe since the 1960s; and the unregulated and informal nature of its labour markets, allowing immigrants to find work easily. Full geographical coverage across Spain, Portugal, Italy and Greece, coupled with substantial discussion across a wide range of migrant groups, processes and issues, make this book essential reading for all those who have an interest in contemporary European society. Migration has had important effects on labour markets, as well as calling into question identities and public policies. These issues are explored from an explicitly comparative dimension and in the context of current theoretical debates.