This volume poses a series of key questions about the practice of probation as an integral part of the European criminal justice system. The contributors are established experts in their respective fields of study and together their questions address the legitimacy, and perhaps continued existence, of probation.The book offers analyses of why people offend and stop offending, and the wide ranging impacts of probation. This includes the impact on offenders' social reintegration, as a form of reparation for victims and communities, on public desire for justice and punishment, and on probationers themselves. The contributors further assess the state of probation and its adaptation to the current state of penality and society, the role of probation officers in pre-sentencing decision-making and the promotion of community sanctions and measures. By providing important recommendations and suggestions for application to practice, the book will be of great interest to academics, students, policy makers and practitioners alike.