This title analyses European Muslim communities' developing involvement in their political environment. Muslims are making themselves noticed in the political process of Europe. But what is happening behind the sensational headlines? These 16 essays look at the processes and realities in 12 European areas: Belgium, Catalonia, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Poland, Sweden and the UK. They analyse and compare issues from voting patterns in local and national assemblies to the tensions between ethnic, political and religious identities. These developments drive internal Muslim debates including whether Muslims should take part in the democratic process at all, and rivalries over who should represent Muslims. They also inspire sharp discussion in Europe: how should European states view the increasingly active role of Muslims in the public space? Does it signal integration or separation?