Formed as a series of articles, this book looks at a variety of medical innovations in their historical contexts. The book itself is introduced by John Pickering and features articles by Lindsay Granshaw, Michael Worboys, Paul Weindling, Steve Sturdy, Anja Hiddinga, Roger Cooter and David Cantor. The authors argue that the historical literature on science, technology and medicine is relatively undeveloped as the emphasis to date seems to be on scientific biographies which do little to illuminate either the science or the society in which it was produced. This is often assigned to the relatively structured split between the sciences and the humanities, and the methods that the two employ to evaluate and supplement their arguments. The object of this series, therefore, is to promote the historical perspective to stimulate debate and supply analysis. The books of the series are designed to be of interest not just to historians, or just scientists, engineers and doctors but to all who share the view that science, technology and medicine are important issues that should be included in the study of history.